About 35% of American adults are struggling with obesity. We all know that the main causes of obesity are a sedentary lifestyle, an unhealthy diet and, possibly, some unsuccessful genes. However, these are the last couple of years, researchers have increasingly become convinced that there is another cause of obesity that lurks in our intestines – intestinal microbes in abundance (billions to billions).
The microscopic inhabitants of our intestines have always helped us to decompose the hard plant fibers while they live in such a nutritious place. However, their roles now seem to be greater than this. The intestinal bacteria change the way to balance blood glucose levels, how we store fat, and how we react to hormones that make us feel full or hungry, according to the latest testimonies. It seems that the wrong combination of microbes can help in creating the basis for diabetes and obesity since we were born.
Fortunately, now researchers are starting to understand the differences between healthy mix and wrong, as well as certain factors that make these differences. Researchers hope that they will learn how to cultivate our internal ecosystem so that it can reflect and even treat obesity. According to doctors, obesity has a body mass index, the ratio of weight to height and weight exceeds 30.
For example, imagine child formulas, foods or supplements designed to suppress harmful microbes and encourage virtuous ones. Jeffrey Gordon of the University of Washington in St. Louis believes that researchers should think about creating products from the inside. Thus, an intangible secret, in order to control our weight, could keep germs in our gut.
Inner Rain Forest
Although the researchers already knew that there are different types of microorganisms in our body, over the past decade they have discovered that the number of these microbes is so great that they actually outnumber human cells ten to one. It was found that the largest and most diverse types of microbes live in the colon and in the mouth, but other large communities of microorganisms live on our skin and in the genital tract.
A person collects the first unique group of microbes when passes through the mother’s birth canal, and then continues to collect new members from the surrounding throughout life. Different microbes are collectively regarded as microbiomas, and the researchers analyzed their genes and identified a number of the most common inhabitants, even though they can vary individually and among humans. In the last couple of years, researchers have begun to investigate the type of work of these minute residents in our body, as well as their impact on our overall health.
Studies that focused on comparing intestinal bacteria in obese and obese individuals found that intestinal microbes could play a role in obesity. Studies involving twins suffering from obesity or both scanty showed that intestinal bacteria in lean people resemble tropical forests with different species, as opposed to obese people whose intestinal community was less diverse, reminiscent of a pond overloaded with nutrients. Several dominant species .
For example, it has been found that lean people usually have more varieties of bacterioids, which are a broad tribe of microbes responsible for the decomposition of cumbersome plant fibers and starches into smaller molecules that can be used as a source of energy by the body.
However, this does not mean that these differences cause obesity. Gordon and his team wanted to show the cause and effect, so they conducted a series of experiments on “humanized” mice that were published in Science in September last year. They used a microbial medium to grow genetically identical rodents, so their bodies were completely free of any bacteria. After that, the intestines of the rodents were colonized by intestinal microbes collected from lean women and their fat twin sisters (in these studies, 1 set of identical twin women and 3 pairs of fraternal twins were used).
Although the researchers gave the same diet for mice, those with intestinal bacteria from an obese twins had more fat and became heavier than those who received intestinal microbes from a skinny twin. Not surprisingly, obese mice had a less diverse community of intestinal microbes.
Gordon and his colleagues repeated this experiment with small changes. Dividing the rodents into two groups and giving them microbes of the intestine from their twins, they put all the mice in a common cage. In this experiment, all mice remained lean. The study showed that mice with intestinal microbes in obese people had some of the intestinal bacteria of their roommates, especially Bacteroidetes. This happened, probably because they ate the feces of their roommates, a disgusting habit of the mouse.
The researchers wanted to prove this fact once again, so they transferred 54 species of bacteria from thin mice to mice with a community of microbes from obese people and found that mice that were supposed to be obese received a healthy weight. As Gordon explains, these experiments prove the connection between cause and effect, and that the prevention of obesity was possible.
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